27 March 2012

European Best Destination 2012 - ECC - European Consumers Choice

European Best Destination 2012 - ECC - European Consumers Choice


TOP 10 DESTINATIONS IN EUROPE :


20 selected towns were competing for the prestigious title of Best European Destination 2012. After a three weeks’ period of online voting Porto is elected the Best European Destination 2012 and wins the title ahead of 19 big european cities.

Dubrovnik, Vienna, Prague, Brussels, Berlin, Budapest, Lisbon, Florence and Edinburgh are the next best destinations for a holiday or city-trip in 2012.

We thank all the participants from Tourism Offices, community managers of social networks and the 212.688 voters who have made their choice and influenced the result.

read more

23 March 2012

Branding the green


Destination Management and Branding in the Mediterranean Region
Sustainable Tourism in Times of Crisis - 19th - 21st  April 2012, Antalya, Turkey
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Branding the green. How place branding can contribute to the development of the
Northwest of Portugal as green tourism destination

EDUARDO OLIVEIRA*
Department of Planning & Environment, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, 
University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands

ABSTRACT
Place branding is a practice adopted by cities, regions and countries in the context of intensified competition for resources, investment, residents and tourists. Places, are faced with the effects of globalisation and are challenged by changes in their economic, cultural and social mosaic (Kavaratzis, 2005). Places have long been seeking to differentiate themselves from each other, in order to assert their individuality and distinctive characteristics in pursuit of economic (e.g. increase the tourism revenues), social and political objectives (Kavaratzis & Ashworth, 2010).
Destination branding has gained considerable importance, particularly in recent years (e.g. Morgan, Pritchard & Pride, 2004). The destination brand is described as a powerful tool with the ability to generate experiences and is considered critical to a successful marketing effort in tourism destinations (Leisen, 2001).  
Portugal is generally seen as a ‘sun, sea and sand’ destination, attracting international tourist markets (e.g. United Kingdom, Germany, France) very much due to its climate, historical cities and heritage of the discoveries. Each region has his own resources to offer. The Northwest is often associated with the ‘green’ of its natural scenery characterised by the biogeography of the Peneda-Gerês National Park, mountainous terrain of great beauty that provides tourism opportunities (e.g. Vinho Verde, rural and eco-tourism). The region is characterised by small communities and small-scale family businesses providing personalised tourist experiences (Kastenholz & Almeida, 2008). However, the Northwest region, has been facing several economic and social problems due to the relocation of multinational enterprises to low-wage regions. An increasing unemployment rate and less local purchasing power are consequences. To avoid environmental, social and economic degradation of the region as a destination, sustainable tourism development is paramount (Kastenholz & Almeida, 2008). Thus, the following questions are fundamental. Is branding the Northwest as a ‘green’ destination, through place branding theory and destination branding, the right strategy to address the contemporary issues? Is the process of branding an efficient and effective tool to achieve development and to link the regional strategy with the stakeholders?
Developing the enhancing factors of differentiation and competitive advantage (e.g. green landscape), through sustainable actions, the main theme of the conference, could be a strategy to counter economic and social weaknesses.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the contribution of place branding and destination branding theories, to a brand strategy capable of enhancing the development and competitive advantage of the Northwest of Portugal as a ‘green’ destination.

WORDS 398

KEYWORDS Place branding; Destination branding; Northwest of Portugal.

* With PhD supervision from GREGORY ASHWORTH and GERT DE ROO

REFERENCES
Kastenholz, E. & Almeida, A.L. (2008). Seasonality in rural tourism – the case of North Portugal. Tourism Review, 63(2), 5-15.
Kavaratzis, M. & Ashworth, G.J. (2010). Place branding: where do we stand? In Ashworth, G.J. & Kavaratzis, M. (Ed.), Towards Effective Place Brand  Management-Branding European Cities and Regions (pp. 1-14). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.
Kavaratzis, M. (2005). Place branding: A Review of Trends and Conceptual Models. The Marketing Review, 5(4), 329-342.
Leisen, B. (2001). Image segmentation: the case of a tourism destination. Journal of Services Marketing, 15(1), 49-64.
Morgan, N. & Pritchard, A. & Pride, R. (2004). Destination Branding: Creating the Unique Destination Proposition. Oxford, UK: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.

While in the Netherlands

22 March 2012

O tributo eclesiástico de Budapeste

O tributo eclesiástico de Budapeste


O tributo eclesiástico de Budapeste


A basí­lica de Szent Ist­ván (Santo Estê­vão) estava na lista dos monu­men­tos a visi­tar desde que mar­cá­mos a visita a Buda­peste. E, uma vez por cá, era difí­cil evitá-lo: o edi­fí­cio impõe os seus 96 metros de altura na linha do hori­zonte e serve como ine­vi­tá­vel ponto de refe­rên­cia nos pas­seios pela cidade. Deste lado do rio, Peste, ou do outro, Buda. O único edi­fí­cio que riva­liza em altura com a basí­lica é o do Par­la­mento, com os mes­mos 96 metros (é sim­bó­lico: o Estado e a Igreja são igual­mente impor­tan­tes). São os dois mais altos da capi­tal hún­gara e a lei impede cons­tru­ções mais altas.
O monu­mento é sobe­ja­mente conhe­cido dos livros, dos com­pên­dios de arqui­tec­tura neo­clás­sica, das suges­tões de ami­gos, dos guias. Quem tenha sen­tido o menor inte­resse pela His­tó­ria da Hun­gria e per­gun­tado ao Goo­gle sobre o iní­cio do reino asso­ci­ado à nação magiar, quem o tivesse feito daria de caras com a figura de Estê­vão I, pri­meiro rei do país e o res­pon­sá­vel pela ade­são hún­gara ao cato­li­cismo no ano 1000). A liga­ção é directa: cano­ni­zado em 1083, Estê­vão I é o patrono da basí­lica e é ali que se con­serva a sua mão direita (incor­rup­tí­vel, conta a lenda) mumi­fi­cada, quase um milé­nio após a sua morte.
É pos­sí­vel visi­tar toda a basí­lica de Szent Ist­ván online, de forma gra­tuita. Tanto o inte­rior como a famosa relí­quia. O que é mais do que os turis­tas que se apre­sen­tam às suas por­tas podem dizer. A entrada é paga: 200 forints ou um euro (que vale cerca de 290 forints). A amiga Olga tinha avi­sado dois dias antes e dado uma dica para nos fur­tar­mos ao imposto que nos iriam cobrar num ras­ga­dís­simo sor­riso e fre­nesi anfi­trião. Acon­se­lhava a que, como ela e comi­tiva, nos socor­rês­se­mos de Jesus e da his­tó­ria dos ven­di­lhões do tem­plo. “Não façais da casa de meu Pai uma casa de comér­cio”, disse Cristo, segundo São João. Anotámos.
Che­ga­dos ao balcão-bilheteira que impede os visi­tan­tes de avan­çar para a nave da basí­lica, logo após a porta, per­gun­tá­mos ao padre de ser­viço o que pre­ten­dia ele de nós, para que pudés­se­mos seguir com a visita. Duzen­tos forints. Ou um euro. Era à esco­lha. Disse e incli­nou a cabeça; esfre­gou as mãos. Antes de res­ga­tar­mos as moe­das ao bolso, nova per­gunta: “Está a pedir-nos para pagar para entrar na casa de Deus?” Arre­ga­lou os olhos, inquietou-se, ama­re­lou o sor­riso e fez que não per­ce­bia. Ficou enta­lado, rubro – e bastou-nos; pagá­mos e seguimos.
Vimos tudo o que nos dei­xa­ram ver (o Flickr pode dar uma ajuda na recons­ti­tui­ção dos nos­sos pas­sos), acom­pa­nha­dos pelo eté­reo som de um aspi­ra­dor em fúria ope­rá­ria. O que não incluiu a mão mumi­fi­cada de Santo Estê­vão. Para a ver, era pre­ciso gas­tar mais uma moe­di­nha e com ela acen­der as luzes do reli­cá­rio. Sem a moe­di­nha tudo escuro, rien de relí­quia para os turis­tas, cren­tes ou não, devo­tos ou não.
Curi­oso é que o site da basí­lica esteja regis­tado no domí­nio .biz, nor­mal­mente reser­vado a negócios…

Os ban­cos da Szent István-bazilika, como os de outros luga­res de culto desta impor­tân­cia, estão inter­di­tos a visitantes

DutchNews.nl - Flying Dutchman makes dream a reality

DutchNews.nl - Flying Dutchman makes dream a reality

Flying Dutchman makes dream a reality

Wednesday 21 March 2012
A Dutch mechanical engineer has succeeded in making a pair of wings which allow him to fly like a bird.
Jarno Smeets has spent months working on his Human Birdwings project and this weekend managed to fly 100 metres after a short run to take off in a park in The Hague.

The 17-metre wings are modelled on the movement and structure of real bird wings and use two Wii controllers plus parts from a WTC smartphone, allowing Smeets to move his arms freely.
'This was the best moment I've ever had,' the engineer, who is inspired by Leonardo da Vinci and his grandfather, said after landing.
© DutchNews.nl

12 March 2012

KONY: 3 things UNICEF needs you to know to help children in conflict

A golden age for Dutch Masters


A golden age for Dutch Masters

Low tuition fees and the quality of student life mean there's never been a better time for postgraduate study in Holland
British students have been notoriously resistant to the idea of foreign 
study, compared with their Continental counterparts, but that is 
changing fast. The reason is simple: the sudden hike in UK tuition fees.
This increase has coincided with changes introduced across the Channel,
where the Bologna Accord has made the British model – a three-year 
degree followed by a Masters – the standard in the Netherlands.
Dutch universities compete hard with each other and much of their marketing is aimed at British graduates looking for further education. Tuition fees for a government-subsidised Masters course are €1,713 a year (about £1,450). That's roughly one-sixth the cost of an English equivalent. The cost will rise to €1,771 (£1,500) later this year.
The web search site Mastersportal lists 907 Masters courses in Holland, compared with 706 in Sweden. Amsterdam University leads the field with 244, followed by Utrecht (90), Groningen (86), Leiden (83) and Maastricht (74). Around half of these courses are taught in English.
Marcel Dalziel of MJD Consultancy is running a student world fair at the Emirates Stadium in London on 17 March. "At the first one, last year, about 22 per cent of the audience were interested in postgraduate degrees in Holland," he says. "This time we expect that number to be approaching 40 per cent."
The reasons go beyond tuition fees. The cost of living is much cheaper in the Netherlands than it is in the UK, he says. Almost everyone in the country speaks English and many university text books are written in the language. More than that, Dalziel says, Holland is geared to students. "The Dutch embrace them – it's all bicycles, clean, pedestrianised high streets, trendy little bars and restaurants."
There are now around 82,000 foreign students at Dutch universities and colleges, around 10 per cent of the total. The university with the most foreign students is Maastricht.
Of the 14 research universities (excluding medical schools) in the Netherlands, some are highly rated internationally, notably Amsterdam, Utrecht and Leiden. Prospective postgrads need to be careful, though. There is a big difference between research universities, which are primarily academic and are the only ones that can award doctorates, and the universities of applied sciences, which are mainly vocational but which also offer Masters degrees. There are also private universities and institutes.
Annagien Lucas, of Leiden University, points out that Masters courses can vary considerably in their cost and admission criteria. "The difference is whether or not they have been subsidised by the government," she says.
"Not all programmes want this funding, because the moment you ask for help the government has some say in how the courses are organised. That could be at the level of deciding whether there is a need for the programme in Holland."
Advanced Masters programmes cater for students who already have a Masters or have several years' work experience. An MBA would fall into this category. The study is more intense, the demands are higher and so is the cost.
Leiden's MSc in international relations and diplomacy, for example, is a non-subsidised, two-year course with intensive course work. It costs €15,750 a year. But the same university runs a one-year Masters in politics and bureaucracy in the Hague, the Dutch seat of government, for €1,1713.
Both Leiden and Utrecht are primarily student towns. "One in four inhabitants here is a student," says Nadja van Haren from the HU University of Applied Sciences in Utrecht, one of the town's five universities. "Utrecht is in the middle of the Netherlands so you can go anywhere by train – Amsterdam is only 20 minutes away."
Sam Sullivan, 22, from Blackwood, near Cardiff, saw the possibilities early. He took a BA in politics and history at University College, Utrecht, and is now doing a Masters in conflict studies and human rights at Utrecht University.
"I chose this course because, unusually, it's taught for the first half and after that you're left to do your own research," he says. "Usually a postgrad course is one or the other."
Like other students, he sings the praises of Utrecht as a place to study. "It's a young person's city, a great place to relax. There are endless sports clubs. But it's hard to learn Dutch because as soon as you try, someone replies in English."
During his undergraduate course he lived on campus, but for the Masters he found his own room with no difficulty. "You do hear about people having problems but there are a lot of networks out there."
The next step for Sam is either a PhD or a job in industry. "There are a few niche opportunities for people with Dutch experience," he says.
Amy Sutcliffe, 29, from Cheshire, is taking a Masters course in literature and cultural criticism at the same university. The course is taught in Dutch, English and German and the standard of teaching, she says, is at least as high as that at Newcastle University, where she did her first degree, in German.
"The lecturers are from a variety of nationalities – Belgian, Irish, Dutch. Occasionally someone struggles with English but it's rare. It's well-organised and the faculty are very good at answering emails."
Prospective Masters students will naturally gravitate towards universities specialising in their subjects. Wageningen, for example, is known for food science and nutrition, and offers 28 MSc programmes taught in English, ranging from animal sciences to hydrology and water quality, a Dutch speciality. The University of Twente, the Netherlands' only full-campus university, is entrepreneurial and claims to have produced 600 spin-off companies.
Masters programmes are organised on a credit system: one credit represents 28 hours of work and 60 credits a year's full-time study. There are usually four eight-week terms a year, starting in September. Students working 32 hours a month are eligible for a government grant, but only after three months in the country.
And the nightlife? "Superb," says Joe Vanags-Fleming, from London, who studied history at the University of Amsterdam. "In terms of the local club scene Amsterdam is closer to Berlin than London. But in such a multicultural city you can find pretty much anything."

La Cantine by Coca-Cola

9 March 2012

More Sex is Safer Sex and Other Surprises

More Sex is Safer Sex and Other Surprises

MORE SEX IS SAFER SEX AND OTHER SURPRISES

An article by Professor Steven E. Landsburg, University of Rochester, New York

Would the world be a better place if sexually cautious people went out and got more partners? Apply economic logic to the question and you may get a result that deviates far from common sense says Professor Steven E. Landsburg at the recent Warwick Economic Summit 2012. It’s all down to the costs and benefits.
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We all learnt in childhood that you can have too much of a good thing. We know we should have dinner tonight but are not sure if we should reach for that third helping. We know our town should have a fire department but should it have a bigger fire station? That’s something we don’t know. “So the interesting economic problem is, how do you know when you’ve had enough?” asks Prof Landsburg.
Here’s where economic logic comes in. “Logic is both fun and useful, and economic logic in particular sometimes surprises you,” he says. “Just as you can have too much of a good thing, you can have too little of a bad thing – take pollution for example.” There’s universal agreement that pollution is a bad thing yet nobody would want to live in a world with zero pollution because that would mean we would be without buildings and travel. Pollution, says Prof Landsburg, is a necessary by-product of other things that we like having so we put up with a certain amount.
“That raises the interesting question, do we currently have too much pollution or too little? Once you’ve agreed that the right amount is not zero, it’s not immediately obvious whether we would be happier in a world with more or with less.”
His answer is that the world has too much pollution and we’d be happier with less. “And here’s why I say that: because by and large, the people who decide to create pollution are not the people who have to live with the consequences of that pollution.” When people don’t have to live with the consequences of their actions there’s little incentive to reign in the bad behaviour and concentrate on the good. “That’s why we have too much pollution and too few people out in the park picking up trash.”
Prof Steven E. LandsburgWhat if we take that principle and apply it to the question of whether the world has too much or too little casual sex? “Suppose for starters that you happen to be a very reckless, promiscuous person with a lot of partners in the past. You go out tonight looking for a new partner... you’re making the world a more dangerous place for other people and you’re doing that in a way where the costs largely fall on other people rather than on you. You’re polluting the partner pool that everybody else is fishing in.” These promiscuous people are more likely to spread diseases, says Prof Landsburg, and when they choose to take another partner they don’t fully account for the costs they’re imposing on the rest of the world.
Yet look at the flip side. “Suppose instead that you are a particularly cautious person, a person who is statistically much less likely than the average person to be infected with anything terrible. You go out tonight and you take a new partner, you’ve made the world a safer place. That person who is going home with you is having safer sex than they realise. You have improved the quality of the partner pool.”
Using the costs and benefits test Prof Landsburg works out that the cautious person is not having enough partners because a lot of the benefit of their behaviour is falling on other people. The cautious person isn’t accounting for that when they’re deciding how many partners to have. “I suggest the world would be a better place if we could get those very cautious people to go out and have more partners. Not too many... because we don’t want to turn them into those promiscuous dangerous people... as with everything else there’s a right amount.”

Logic is both fun and useful, and economic logic in particular sometimes surprises.
Therefore pure economic theory tells Prof Landsburg that the world would be a better place and social gain/social welfare would rise if the very promiscuous people reigned themselves in and if the very cautious people loosened up a little bit. But what does an economic welfare rise mean? There are, according to Prof Landsburg, two different ways it could happen in this context.
The first is that the spread of disease could be actually slowed down. The second is that there may be some increase in the amount of disease, but there would be such a disproportionately large increase in that amount of sexual activity that welfare would go up: “because people were having so much fun that it compensates for the additional diseases spread”.
“Pure theory tells us that when people don’t take account of all the benefits that they are imposing on other people then if you could get them to do a little more of this stuff, welfare would go up.” The theory, however, doesn’t tell you how welfare would go up – that takes more theory.
Michael Kremer at Harvard University used epidemiology and modelling to answer this question. He says that if cautious people had more sex then welfare would increase. Kremer’s estimate is that if you took everybody in Great Britain who currently averages fewer than two and a quarter partners a year, and brought them all up to the two and a quarter partners per year level, then you would substantially slow down the speed of HIV.
That’s a surprising conclusion and one that seems to go against common sense. Don’t worry about that, closes Prof Landsburg. “Common sense is what tells you the earth is flat”.

Steven E. Landsburg is Professor of Economics at the University of Rochester, New York. He is author of The Armchair Economist and writes a column for Slate magazine about topics ranging from the national debt problem to the obesity crisis.
His research topics are varied, such as using the language of microeconomics to explain and justify the everyday decisions that we make and the social and economic patterns that result. Prof Landsburg’s more recent work include the (career) cost of motherhood and whether or not daughters (as opposed to sons) cause divorce.
Photograph by Felix Li, Warwick Photosoc.

Top 20 most expensive cities in the world revealed in new study | News | Breaking Travel News

Top 20 most expensive cities in the world revealed in new study | News | Breaking Travel News

Top 20 most expensive cities in the world revealed in new study

6th Jan 2012
Top 20 most expensive cities in the world revealed in new study
A new study examining the top twenty most expensive cities in the world has been released with some perhaps surprising results.
While most of the places hard on the wallet were in Europe, it is Scandinavia where tourists are urged to watch their pennies most closely.
Following a survey of more than 23,000 travellers, carried out by numbero.com, the most expensive city for visitors (i.e. excluding rent) was revealed to be Trondheim in Norway.
This was followed by the city of Stavanger, also in Norway, with Switzerland’s cultural heartland Zurich completing the top three.
Based on 45 goods and services, the cost of living survey, which was carried out at the start of 2012 examined more than 241,000 prices.
The survey used New as the base city for the index and scores 100 points, with all cities compared the base and currency movements measured against US Dollar and Euro.
Tokyo (Japan) scores 135.23 points and is nearly three times as costly as Manila (Philippines) with 47.34 points.
In the 2012, the most expensive cities (excluding rent) were

Dutch cheesemaker wins World Championship Cheese Contest


VIA
A Dutch cheesemaker won the first prize at the World Championship Cheese Contest in Madison on Thursday. This announced the organization of the World Cup in the U.S. city of Madison. The winning cheese is made by Vermeer from Friesland Campina in Wolvega, The Netherlands.
The Dutch cheese beat two Swiss cheeses, and marked the first time in four contests the Swiss did not take top honors.
The contest, held every two years in Madison, typically draws more than 2,000 entries from nearly two-dozen nations. The three-day contest began on Monday, with judges grading 2,500 entries in 82 cheese and butter classes on flavor, texture, body and color. The second and third place went to cheesemakers from Switzerland.
http://www.dutchdailynews.com/dutch-cheesemaker-wins-world-championships-final-in-wisconsin/

7 March 2012

From the Netherlands to America: Translating the World's Best Bikeway Designs

KONY 2012

The world’s best booze - Lonely Planet


Whose round is it anyway? The world’s best booze



Traditional sake barrels at Tsurugaqoka Hachimangu Shrine in Kamakura.
  • Guinness Brewery.
  • Belgian beer.
  • Absinthe bottles.
  • Vineyards in the Cote d'Or wine region (Golden Hillside).
  • Locals drinking beer on sidewalk in front of Bar Urca.
View gallery
Drinking the local beverage is a sure way to warm the hearts of the locals. Here is a selection of alcoholic drinks that make the effort of travel all the more rewarding.

1. Sake, Japan

Image by katclay
Called nihonshu in Japansake is a rice wine with an alcohol content of 15% to 17%. Prior to the first sake brewery being established at Kyoto’s Imperial Palace in the 7th century, sake was consumed in a form that resembled porridge, with the rice primed for production by the chew-in-the-mouth method. There are more than 1,600 brewers of this almost transparent alcohol, with varieties ranging from sweet to crisp and fragrantly fruity. Serving sake slightly chilled generally brings out its best qualities.

2. Guinness, Ireland

Image by ccharmon
It takes 119.5 seconds to pour the perfect pint. The famous ‘surge and settle’ should be executed in a two-part pour, served at 6°C (43°F). But the malt-and-caramel flavoured dark body (actually ruby coloured, rather than black) with a creamy head is worth getting right. Based in Dublin, the Guinness brew is a malt-heavy porter (dark, sweet ale brewed from black malt) – so called because it was the favourite beverage of porters.

3. Beer, Belgium

Image by jonworth-eu
Someone once said: ‘beauty is in the eye of the beer holder’; if that’s the case, then Belgium is exquisite. It produces around 450 varieties of beer, with a specifically shaped glass for each, and some world renowned brews. The Trappist dark ales were first brewed by monks who fled France after the Napoleonic period. The best-known of them is Chimay – served in a goblet-like glass. Hoegaarden is a fine example of Belgian Witbier (white), distinguished by its pale golden colour, extra fizz, sediment and hint of herbs, such as coriander.

4. Absinthe, Czech Republic

Image by plusgood
For instant bohemian, just add water. But ensure you add it a drop at a time through a sugar cube on a spoon placed over the glass of absinthe. This turns the emerald green 140-proof liquor a cloudy opalescent colour. Bohemians also burn sugar into their absinthe to mellow its bitter anise flavour. Made from wormwood, fennel and anise, the ‘Green Fairy’ has opium-like effects – the inspiration for many artists such as Van Gogh, Ernest Hemingway and Oscar Wilde. Banned in European countries during the early 19th century, governments now limit the level of thujone (an ingredient in absinthe likened to cannabis’ THC).

5. Burgundy wine, France

Image by Megan Mallen
The sought-after wines of Burgundy (Bourgogne) possess particular qualities attributable to the region’s 400 soil types. White Burgundy is essentially a chardonnay, with an added depth and delicacy courtesy of the limestone soil in which it’s grown, while red Burgundy is a gutsy pinot noir. To be classified ‘Burgundy’, the wine must be produced within the recognised region of the AOC (Appellation d’Origine Contrôlée) in the Côte d’Or. The region’s vineyards were originally entirely owned by the Church, then divided up among workers according to Napoleonic Inheritance Laws.

6. Caipiroska, Brazil

This simple three-step cocktail is composed of vodka, limes and sugar. In a short glass, muddle fresh limes with two teaspoons of sugar, add loads of crushed ice and then pour a good quality vodka over the lot. This is of course the vodka version of the popularly known caipirinha, made with cachaça. Though native to Brazil, you should be able to walk into many bars around the world and ask for one by name.

7. Becherovka, Czech Republic

Image by nicksieger
Only two people know the secret recipe to produce this all-natural liquor (36% alcohol volume). The ‘chosen few’ are the only ones allowed into the ‘Drogikamr‘ where many herbs and spices are combined, placed in a sack, then steeped in alcohol for a week. The mixture is then combined with water and sugar and placed in oak barrels for two months. No-one can agree on a definitive flavour, but it’s traditionally served chilled, as a digestive.


Read more: http://www.lonelyplanet.com/ireland/travel-tips-and-articles/76114?intaffil=lpemail+##ixzz1oQS5bm1n

Special issue in European Planning Studies Spatial planning and place branding: rethinking relations and synergies

Introduction:  Kristof Van Assche, Raoul Beunen and Eduardo Oliveira  Rethinking planning-branding relations: an introduction . https:...